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留學生Essay參考文獻引用格式說明 哈佛參考文獻引用格式

時間:2012-10-19 00:14來源:www.814269.buzz 作者:代寫essay 點擊:
寫一篇Essay,如何標注參考文獻引用標注格式?這里談及的是哈佛參考文獻引用格式,英語叫做The Harvard Referencing system,也是目前歐美最流行的引用方式.

Essay參考文獻引用標注格式說明 哈佛參考文獻引用格式 The Harvard Referencing system
 
References 參考文獻

在學術寫作中,學生往往被要求不要脫離閱讀的主題。參考文獻引用是一個證明,證明了學生做了合適的和足夠的的閱讀。這是必要的,以引用二手資料(從其他人的作品獲取信息)作為一個禮貌的做法,以及避免抄襲(引用的想法或研究其他人的觀點作為自己的看法),以驗證思想的來源,以充實論據 In academic writing students are expected to read around the subject. Referencing is a way of demonstrating that appropriate and adequate reading has taken place. It is necessary to reference secondary sources (information taken from other people’s writing) as a courtesy to the originator and to avoid http://www.814269.buzz/essaygs/ PLAGIARISM (the act of presenting the ideas or discoveries of another person as your own), to verify the source of ideas, to substantiate arguments and to enable readers to follow-up source material.

PLAGIARISM is a very serious issue which is not dealt with in detail in this handout. ‘Students who attempt to gain an unfair advantage in this way will be punished appropriately’ Prof. Richard MURRAY – Dean of Hollings Faculty

Reference list 參考文獻引用表

A list of references must be provided at end of all coursework, including projects and dissertations. This reference list contains details of all of the works used (cited either: (i) directly with quotation marks and page numbers or (ii) indirectly – paraphrased or summarised) to produce text of your work so that the source/author of all of ‘your’ submission may be identified. Page numbers are compulsory for direct quotations. Works are listed in alphabetical order by author; surname first followed by initials. If there is more than one work by the same author they are placed in date (chronological) order, earliest first.  There is no need to separate books, journals and other sources; simply list all references in alphabetical order using the system outlined blow.

Note: If an author is cited more than once, chronological order is used. If the author has two or more references from the same year differentiate this by year followed by a letter, for example, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c etc. 
 
Bibliography 參考書目
 
A bibliography may be requested in addition to references or in place of references as part of the coursework assignment – check with your tutor.

A bibliography is a complete list of all the works you have consulted in preparing the coursework or dissertation. Usually, it includes works that you have read but not actually cited in the text. If there is no reference list, the bibliography may also include references. The bibliography should comprise only items that you considered to have been important in forming your views.

INDEX
                    Page
  
 1. Book          23
a. One author         23
 b. Two authors           23 
 c. Three or more authors          23 
 d. Anonymous/no author          23
 e. Two or more texts by different authors        23
f. More than one work by the same author     23
g. Secondary sources        23
 
 2. Chapter in book         24
 
 3. Journal article         24
 a. One author            24
 b. Two or more authors         24
 c. Anonymous           24 
 
 4. Government publication         24 

5. Newspaper article          24

6. Thesis or dissertation        24

7. Illustration           25

8. Published music          25

9. Patent          25

10. Personal communication         25
(such as letter, conversation, and interview)

11. Electronic Sources        25
a. Internet source        25
b. Electronic book (e-book)       25
  c. Electronic (journal) article (e.g. from Emerald database)  25
  d. Journal articles from CD-ROM      26
e. Film, Video recording or TV broadcast     26
f. Electronic discussion list       26
g. Personal electronic communication     26
 
 12.  Tables, figures and diagrams      26
 
 13. Quotations and plagiarism       26
 
 Examples

Methods employed for:
(i)  direct quotations (copying words form a secondary source);
(ii)  paraphrased information (use of ideas but with rearrangement or synthesis of words from one or more sources); and
(iii)  listing references are exemplified:
 
 1. Book
The information required for referencing a book is:

author/s and/or editors (or the organisation/association if no author is listed or the title if no author or organisation is listed) - year of publication - title (in italics) - edition, volume number and translation (if applicable) - publisher - place (city) of publication

Take the title and author's name from the title page, not the cover.

The details of publication (publisher's name, place of publication and year of publication) can usually be found on the reverse of the title page. Sometimes there might be more than one year given. In that case, look for the word ‘edition’, or abbreviation ‘edn’. Use the latest year associated with this. If a book lacks details, it may be referenced using n.d. meaning no date and/or, n.p., no place.

a. One author
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Brown, 2000, p.33).
(ii) Brown (2000) maintained that ...  or
 …..management had limited responsibility (Brown, 2000).
(iii) Brown, W. L. (2000). Consumer Behaviour, Wiley & Sons, New York.
 
 b. Two authors
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Black and White, 2001, p.33).
(ii) Black and White (2001) maintained that ...  or
 …..management were innovative but not autonomous (Black and White, 2001).
 (iii) Black, C. and White, Z. (2001). Psychology, 2nd. edn., Harper & Row, New York.
 
 c. Three or more authors
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Brown, Black, White and Grey, 2002, p.33)
(ii) Brown, Black, White and Grey (2002) maintained that ...  or
 …..management had limited responsibility (Brown, Black, White and Grey, 2000)
and then for (i) and (ii) use (Brown et al., 2002) subsequently to replace full list of names.
 (iii) Brown, W.L., Black, C., White, Z. and Grey, K. (2002). Managers, Addison Wesley, Wokingham. 

 d. Anonymous/no author
If no specific author is given but an organisation is named, use organisation name, for example.  (Mintel, 1999). When no identification is possible, use either (Anon. 2003) or the title - (Management Styles, 2003) – if it is not too long.
 
 e. Two or more texts by different authors
Separate text author(s)/dates with a semicolon and list either in:
(i) chronological order
e.g. (Brown, 2000; Black and White, 2001; Black, White and Grey, 2002) or alphabetical order
e.g. (Black and White, 2001; Black, White and Grey, 2002; Brown, 2000)

f. More than one work by the same author
(i) e.g. (Brown, 2000; 2001a; 2001b)
if Brown’s ideas have been summarised from three works written in 2000 and 2001.

g. Secondary sources
Secondary sources refer to the work of one author from within that of another being cited. It is preferable to consult and cite the parent source. However, if it is necessary to refer to a secondary source, both/all authors’ names should be provided. For example:
(i) ‘management by objectives was outdated’ (Violet, cited by Brown, 2000, p.23).
(ii) Violet (cited by Brown, 2000) maintained that…. 
(iii) Violet, X. (2000). Management in the future. In R. Brown (ed.) Management paradigms, Blackwell, Oxford, p.108.



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