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如何寫論文開頭introduction及范文

時間:2020-03-16 18:11來源:www.814269.buzz 作者:hongcin 點擊:
“眾所周知的難題”布局Layout of "well known problems" “被忽視了的難題”型布局 "Neglected problems" layout “發現了新的難題”"New problems found" “難題其實沒被解決”"The problem is not solved" “補充解釋
一個導言是寫文章的關鍵。introduction是讀者對你如何用英語寫的第一印象,一個成功的介紹可以為一個好的文章奠定堅實的基礎,也就是說,一個好的故事。

首先,一個好的介紹應該包括背景,topic,告訴老師你要去埃西,并提出自己的意見,使讀者知道你想對他們說什么,您想解釋什么問題,只有這樣才能引起老師的興趣,使他更加有耐心和耐心。閱讀你的文章的興趣。

如何寫論文開頭introduction對于留學生而言是一個很重要的課題,寫好一個優秀的introduction對于你的論文是一個很吸睛的開始,留學生寫好論文的introduction可以讓導師更加注意你的論文,從而獲得更高的分數和更好的印象。

An introduction is the key to writing an article. Introduction is the first impression of readers on how to write in English. A successful introduction can lay a solid foundation for a good article, that is, a good story.

First of all, a good introduction should include the background, topic, tell the teacher that you are going to Essy, and put forward your own opinions, so that the readers can know what you want to say to them and what problems you want to explain. Only in this way can the teacher's interest be aroused, and he can be more patient and patient. Interest in reading your article.

How to write an introduction is a very important topic for foreign students. A good introduction is a very attractive start for your paper. A good introduction for foreign students can make the tutor pay more attention to your paper, so as to get a higher score and a better impression.

1. .“眾所周知的難題”布局Layout of "well known problems"
 
Such articles are generally awesome: we all know that there is a A phenomenon, but the existing theories are not enough to explain. Today, our paper is to build a new theory / modify an old theory, so that this new framework can not only explain what the old theory can explain, but also explain what the old theory can not explain.
Example: M. Olson's "logic of collective action" solves the problem why rational people contribute to public things even when they know that someone will get something for nothing.
Challenge: Generally speaking, everyone agrees with this problem, but there is no consensus on how to solve it / to what extent it has been solved. So it's important to know which group of readers are the default readers of your thesis.
 
2.“被忽視了的難題”型布局 "Neglected problems" layout
 
In fact, many times, we don't realize that some things are a problem. So some articles are arranged like this: everyone sees phenomenon x every day. I know you are used to it, but if you look carefully, you will find that there are problems to be solved, because our existing theory can not explain X.
For example, Coase asked suddenly at that time: where is the company coming from the existing market? The company has existed for a long time, but there are not many people asking about the reasons for its existence. If we think deeply about "there are costs in using the market", there will be fewer.
This kind of article is likely to make outstanding contributions, but it is also very difficult to write. For example, numerous studies have shown that the behavior of the market is far from that of "efficient market hypothesis" (EMH), but the defenders of EMH will fight back. So it's not easy to defeat EMH.
 
3. “發現了新的難題”"New problems found"
 
"We all thought it would happen like this before, but we may be wrong. Now I find a new empirical phenomenon x, which is contradictory to the existing theory, but has nothing to do with it. I have built a new theory to explain X ". This layout generally appears in case studies, but there are also difficulties.
Because it comes from one case or several cases, others can doubt whether it is a case or a special case. Moreover, ordinary authors may not be familiar with the background of this empirical phenomenon, so when reading it, they may not think it is a big deal, so they need to summarize the general significance of their own cases.
 
4. “難題其實沒被解決”"The problem is not solved"
 
This kind of layout is relatively rare. In essence, it means that "you think this problem has been solved, but in fact it has not. I'm going to tell you what's going on in this article.". For example: we all know that decision makers prefer high-grade products / organizations, because there are many theories in this field, but they are not. The premise of these theories is so strict that it is impossible to realize them in real life. For example, each individual uses the same selection criteria and those tastes are public knowledge.
This kind of article is not easy to write. First, you have to educate your readers, "in fact, you don't understand the theory very well.". Second, you have to tell the readers, because these understandings are not deep, such a theory will lead to some problems that they didn't realize before.
 
5. “補充解釋”"Supplementary interpretation"
 
This kind of routine doesn't impact the existing theories fiercely, but provides a new angle. The general layout is that "there are many theories that can explain this phenomenon, but our new theory is not bad at all, or even better at some extent, so the existing theory is not the only one to explain this phenomenon.".
For example, strang & Macy's "in search of excellence" takes books like "in pursuit of excellence" as an example to describe the underlying principle that a tool that is not really useful may reach a large number of dissemination, which complements the existing theoretical explanation.
 
Introduction samples:

論文introduction


論文introduction


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